Maximum effective ISO is an estimate of the highest sensitivity at which a camera can capture excellent quality photos.
Cameras with higher effective ISO will be better choices for indoor photography, night shooting, and indoor sports photography, especially if you intend to make large prints.
You can learn more at our glossary entry.
Maximum effective ISO test data courtesy of DxO Mark.G1X Mark II test data on DxO Mark G3X test data on DxO Mark
Cameras with more dynamic range allow you to take photos with dramatic differences in highlight and shadow areas while retaining detail in both.
Think of a brilliant sunset on a rocky beach: Bright sunset in the background, with dark rocks in the foreground. High dynamic range means more of the extremes will be faithfully reproduced.
Dynamic range test data courtesy of DxO Mark.G3X test data on DxO Mark G1X Mark II test data on DxO Mark
Cameras with longer battery life can take more photos before exhausting their batteries.
Special note: The measurement standard for battery life stipulates that if a camera has an internal flash, it must be used for 50% of photos taken. For this reason, comparisons of one camera with an internal flash to another without will not be comparable
Wider, longer, faster lens than predecessor, with good overall optical quality; Faster AF performance; Closer macro shooting; Built-in Wi-Fi and NFC with remote shooting; Decent JPEG burst performance; Excellent build quality.
Localized flare issue when wide open; No real net improvement in image quality over predecessor; Slow burst mode when shooting RAW files; Poor battery life; Video quality is so-so (not like Canon DSLRs).
Good overall optical performance from the 24-600mm eq. lens; Very good image quality and high ISO performance for this class, especially with RAW; Lots of external controls; Comfortable grip; Shoots 1080/60p video; Includes both mic and headphone jack, Focus peaking for video; Clean HDMI.
No built-in EVF; Mediocre AF speeds; Sluggish burst rate with RAW/RAW+JPG and with servo AF; Below average battery life; No 4K video unlike competitors.