Color depth refers to the number of unique colors that a sensor can faithfully capture. Cameras with better color depth will demonstrate smoother transitions from one color to the next, and avoid "banding" in areas with subtle shading. (Blue skies are an example of where you might see color banding.)
More color depth is generally better, but you'll struggle to notice a difference between two cameras with less than 1 bit of difference. Color depth above 22 bits is considered excellent.
Want to learn more? Head over to our full glossary entry on color depth
Color depth test data courtesy of DxO Mark.NX1 test data on DxO Mark G1X Mark II test data on DxO Mark
Maximum effective ISO is an estimate of the highest sensitivity at which a camera can capture excellent quality photos.
Cameras with higher effective ISO will be better choices for indoor photography, night shooting, and indoor sports photography, especially if you intend to make large prints.
You can learn more at our glossary entry.
Maximum effective ISO test data courtesy of DxO Mark.NX1 test data on DxO Mark G1X Mark II test data on DxO Mark
Cameras with more dynamic range allow you to take photos with dramatic differences in highlight and shadow areas while retaining detail in both.
Think of a brilliant sunset on a rocky beach: Bright sunset in the background, with dark rocks in the foreground. High dynamic range means more of the extremes will be faithfully reproduced.
Dynamic range test data courtesy of DxO Mark.NX1 test data on DxO Mark G1X Mark II test data on DxO Mark
Cameras with longer battery life can take more photos before exhausting their batteries.
Special note: The measurement standard for battery life stipulates that if a camera has an internal flash, it must be used for 50% of photos taken. For this reason, comparisons of one camera with an internal flash to another without will not be comparable
Wider, longer, faster lens than predecessor, with good overall optical quality; Faster AF performance; Closer macro shooting; Built-in Wi-Fi and NFC with remote shooting; Decent JPEG burst performance; Excellent build quality.
Localized flare issue when wide open; No real net improvement in image quality over predecessor; Slow burst mode when shooting RAW files; Poor battery life; Video quality is so-so (not like Canon DSLRs).
Very good, high-resolution image quality; Excellent high ISO performance with RAW files; Very good dynamic range; Blazing fast 15fps full-res burst mode; Deep buffer; Great build quality & comfortable ergonomics; Lots of physical controls; Great battery life; Fast single-shot AF.
Continuous AF performance still not as robust as competing DSLRs; Aggressive JPEG noise reduction at high ISOs; JPEG colors and saturation less pleasing at higher ISOs; H.265 video codec can be difficult to work with.