Fujifilm X-Pro2 Exposure
Fuji X-Pro2 Image Quality
Saturation & Hue Accuracy
Typical saturation levels with excellent hue accuracy.
|In the diagram above, the squares show the original color, and the circles show the color that the camera captured. More saturated colors are located toward the periphery of the graph. Hue changes as you travel around the center. Thus, hue-accurate, highly saturated colors appear as lines radiating from the center. Mouse over the links to compare ISOs and click for larger versions.
Saturation. The Fuji X-Pro2 produces images with fairly bright, pleasing colors using the standard film simulation (Provia) at default settings. The camera pushes most colors by a small amount, dark red, orange and dark green by moderate amounts, but undersaturates aqua by just a bit. Default mean saturation at the base ISO of 200 was 111.0% (11% oversaturated), which is close to average these days. You can of course tweak saturation and/or select a different film simulation mode if the default is not to your taste. Mean saturation fell only slightly as ISO increased, ending up at 108.1% at the maximum extended ISO. Most consumer digital cameras produce color that's more highly saturated (more intense) than found in the original subjects. This is simply because most people like their color a bit brighter than life.
Skin tones. The Fuji X-Pro2 rendered pleasant Caucasian skin tones that were just a touch on the pinkish side when white balance was adjusted to match the light source at base ISO, because of the moderate push in reds. Results were quite pleasing, though, with a healthy look. (Here, too, the X-Pro2's saturation and/or film mode options may come into play for some users, letting them tweak the color of skin tones if they find the default rendering a bit too saturated for their personal tastes. Note that Fujifilm claims their Astia film simulation produces "true-to-life" skin tones.) Where oversaturation is most problematic is on Caucasian skin tones, as it's very easy for these "memory colors" to be seen as too bright, too pink, too yellow, etc.
Hue. The Fuji X-Pro2 produced only a few color shifts relative to the ideal reproduction of hues, and has excellent hue accuracy overall, with less of an orange to yellow shift compared to its predecessor, and no discernible yellow to green shift that we often see. The largest shift is in cyan toward blue, however we think it's a deliberate choice by camera engineers to produce better-looking sky colors. Average "delta-C" color error after correction for saturation at base ISO was only 3.44 (lower numbers are better), which is excellent, and hue accuracy remained better than average across the ISO range. Hue is "what color" the
| See full set of test images
See thumbnails of all test and gallery images
Exposure and White Balance
Indoors, incandescent lighting
Auto and Incandescent white balance were quite warm, but very good results with the Manual setting. Above average exposure compensation required.
|Auto White Balance
|Incandescent White Balance
|Manual White Balance
Indoors, under typical incandescent lighting, color balance was quite warm using the Auto setting, with a fairly strong reddish cast. Results with the Incandescent white balance setting were also very warm, with a strong yellow/orange cast. The Manual white balance setting was quite accurate, though. The Fuji X-Pro2 required +0.7 EV exposure compensation here, while most cameras need about +0.3 EV for this scene. Our test lighting for this shot is a mixture of 60 and 100 watt household incandescent bulbs, a pretty yellow light source, but a very common one in typical home settings here in the U.S.
Very good color outdoors, though the camera tended to overexpose.
|Manual White Balance,
|Auto White Balance,
Outdoors, the Fuji X-Pro2 produced very nice color at default settings. The X-Pro2's default exposure was a bit too bright in our "Sunlit" Portrait shot when using Manual white balance (interestingly Auto and Daylight white balance weren't quite as bright even though WB was all that was changed). This is still better than average, though, as most cameras need +0.7 EV to keep the face bright for this shot, but it did lead to a lot of blown highlights in the mannequin's shirt and flowers. Skin tones were pleasing, with a healthy-looking pinkish cast that's not too overdone with Manual white balance, and Auto wasn't much different (just a touch cooler though as mentioned not quite as bright for some reason). The Fuji X-Pro2 also overexposed our high-contrast Far-field shot, blowing quite a few highlights at default exposure, and some shadows are quite dark as well. Very deep shadows contain good detail, but are noisy, posterized and are abruptly clipped to black. Color was very pleasing with the Auto white balance setting. See the "Extremes: Sunlit..." section below to see how the X-Pro2's Highlight/Shadow Tone and D-Range settings deal with harsh lighting like this.
~2,900 lines of strong detail from JPEGs, about the same from ACR converted RAW.
|Strong detail to
~2,900 lines horizontal
|Strong detail to
~2,900 lines vertical
|Strong detail to
~2,900 lines horizontal
ACR converted RAW
|Strong detail to
~2,900 lines vertical
ACR converted RAW
Our in-camera JPEG resolution chart revealed sharp, distinct line patterns up to about 2,900 lines per picture height in the horizontal direction, and to about 2,900 lines per picture height in the vertical direction as well. Some may argue for higher numbers, but lines begin to merge and are not very distinct at higher resolutions. Complete extinction of the pattern didn't occur before the 4,000 line limit of our chart in both directions. Adobe Camera Raw wasn't able to extract any additional resolution, however it did produce lower amounts of luma moiré near the limits of resolution. As expected, ACR produced very low amounts of chroma moiré even though it normally produces higher from Bayer-filtered cameras, thanks to the X-Trans sensor's irregular color filter pattern. Use these numbers to compare with other cameras of similar resolution, or use them to see just what higher resolution can mean in terms of potential detail.
Sharpness & Detail
Slightly soft images at default settings, with only minor edge-enhancement artifacts appearing around high-contrast subjects. Mild noise suppression is visible in the shadows at base ISO.
|God definition of
with only minor evidence of
|Subtle detail: Hair
Noise suppression tends to blur
detail in areas of subtle contrast,
though detail remains strong in
the darker parts of the model's hair here.
Sharpness. The Fuji X-Pro2 captures slightly soft images by default, though there are still some minor edge enhancement artifacts visible along high-contrast edges such as the relatively thin sharpening "halos" around the lines and letters of the bottle label above left. Default sharpening seems to be a touch stronger than some prior X-Trans models, but still quite conservative. Edge enhancement creates the illusion of sharpness by enhancing colors and tones right at the edge of a rapid transition in color or tone.
Detail. The crop above right shows low levels of luminance noise suppression, as the darker areas of the model's hair still show a pretty good amount of detail. Some individual strands do merge together when local contrast is low and as shadows deepen, but performance here is very good for an APS-C sensor. The Fuji X-Pro2 does a great job at keeping chrominance noise low as well, better than most Bayer-filtered cameras, but it can struggle to resolve fine detail or accurate color in certain fine subject matter because of its unique color filter arrangement. Noise-suppression systems in digital cameras tend to flatten-out detail in areas of subtle contrast. The effects can often be seen in shots of human hair, where the individual strands are lost and an almost "watercolor" look appears.
RAW vs In-Camera JPEGs
As noted above, the Fuji X-Pro2 produces slightly soft JPEG images but with very good detail at default settings. Let's see how an Adobe Camera Raw conversion with relatively strong unsharp mask sharpening compares.
In the table above, we compare an in-camera JPEG taken at base ISO (200) using default noise reduction and sharpening (on the left) to the matching RAW file converted with Adobe Camera Raw 9.1 via DNG Converter 9.6 using default noise reduction with quite strong but tight unsharp masking applied in Photoshop. (We've found that the X-Pro2's RAW files are softer than previous Fuji X-series models, at least when converted in ACR, so we needed to use fairly strong sharpening to get images to look reasonably crisp. In this case, we used USM of 400%, radius of 0.3 pixels, and a threshold of 0.)
Adobe Camera Raw does a pretty good job here, but doesn't extract significantly more detail than the camera does, though contrast and subtle detail in the our red-leaf fabric is better. There is a touch more detail in the mosaic crop and perhaps more accurate colors, but nothing really to write home about. The strong sharpening required to keep images reasonably sharp does tend to exacerbate noise, though, as can be seen in the background of the first set of crops, however that can be mitigated by experimenting with the sharpening settings, or using some luminance noise reduction. Bottom line: Fuji's in-camera processing is excellent, and there isn't much advantage to shooting RAW in terms of detail reproduction, at least with Adobe Camera Raw and at low ISOs.
ISO & Noise Performance
Excellent high ISO performance for an APS-C sensor.
Default High ISO Noise Reduction
The Fuji X-Pro2's images are quite clean with good detail up to ISO 800, with low, fine-grained luma noise and almost no chroma noise. At ISO 1,600, noise reduction efforts are a little stronger as you'd expect, but fine detail is still very good. ISO 3,200 shows a stronger increase in noise and blurring, but fine detail remains pretty good. At ISO 6,400 luminance noise becomes more noticeable along with noise reduction artifacts, though noise still fairly fine-grained, and chroma noise is still well-controlled. Image quality drops off more rapidly at ISO 12,800 and above, with progressively more visible grain, stronger blurring and more noticeable noise reduction artifacts. Fine detail at ISOs 25,600 and 51,200 is quite soft with heavy luminance noise accentuated by sharpening artifacts, as well as chrominance noise in the form of large yellow and purple blotches. Still, noise performance in high ISO JPEGs is excellent, among the best we've seen from an APS-C sensor.
We're pixel-peeping to the extreme here though, which isn't always representative of what you see in prints. As always, see the Print Quality section below for maximum recommended print sizes at each ISO.
Extremes: Sunlit, dynamic range and low light tests
Mediocre dynamic range in JPEGs at default settings. Very good low-light performance.
Sunlight. The Fuji X-Pro2 struggled with the harsh lighting of this test at default settings at the base ISO of 200 (which should be best case). We preferred the default exposure overall, because the exposure at +0.3 EV exposure compensation was too bright with far too many clipped highlights. Even at default exposure (0 EV), quite a few highlights were blown in the mannequin's shirt and flowers. There are quite a few dark shadows as well, and very deep shadows are somewhat posterized and clip to black rather abruptly, likely in an attempt to hide noise. Overall, the Fuji X-Pro2's JPEGs performed below average here without any highlight and shadow adjustments, nor any dynamic range enhancement (see below).
The good news is the blown highlights and clipped shadows in the above test scene were easily recoverable in the RAF RAW files, even at +1.0 EV, so dynamic range captured in the X-Pro2's RAW files appears to be excellent.
Because digital cameras are more like slide film than negative film (in that they tend to have a more limited tonal range), we test them in the harshest situations to see how they handle scenes with bright highlights and dark shadows, as well as what kind of sensitivity they have in low light. The shot above is designed to mimic the very harsh, contrasty effect of direct noonday sunlight, a very tough challenge for most digital cameras. (You can read details of this test here.)
The Fuji X-Pro2 does not offer a traditional contrast adjustment. Instead, it offers Shadow and Highlight Tone settings, which let you adjust contrast in highlights and shadows independently. There are five settings each: "Soft", "Medium Soft", "Standard" (default), "Medium Hard", and "Hard."
|Far-field Highlight and Shadow Tone Comparison
Shadow and Highlight Tone. Above you can see the effects of three of the five settings for Highlight and Shadow Tone control on our high-contrast Far-field shot. Mouse over the links to load the associated thumbnail and click on the links to visit the full resolution image.
Note how the Highlight settings mainly affect the brighter portions of the image, while the Shadow settings impact the darker areas. Both settings can be used simultaneously, giving more flexibility to tune the tone curve at both ends compared to a single contrast setting, though we wish the range of adjustment toward lower contrast was greater as highlights and particularly shadows are still clipped with the "softest" settings.
D-Range is Fuji's name for their dynamic range enhancement technology. D-Range designed to preserve hot highlights, by exposing for highlights and then boosting mid-tones and shadows. There are three levels: DR100 100% (default), DR200 200%, DR400 400%, as well as an Auto mode which can select DR100 or DR200. DR200 is available at ISO 400 and above, while DR400 is available at ISO 800 and above, so all the examples above were taken at ISO 800. Mouse over the links above to load the corresponding thumbnail image. Click on the links to get to the full resolution images.
As you can see the images above, the Fuji X-Pro2's higher D-Range settings were very effective at retaining clipped highlights in our Far-field shot. As they say, though, there's no free lunch, because improved highlight retention comes at a cost of increased noise. This is because the camera's sensitivity needs to be raised to take advantage of the D-Range feature, though that's not much of penalty because the X-Pro2's high ISO performance is so good. (Note that the Fuji X-Pro2 does not offer a multi-shot in-camera HDR mode.)
Dynamic Range Analysis
A key parameter in a digital camera is its Dynamic Range, the range of brightness that can be faithfully recorded. At the upper end of the tonal scale, dynamic range is dictated by the point at which the RGB data "saturates" at values of 255, 255, 255. At the lower end of the tonal scale, dynamic range is determined by the point at which there ceases to be any useful difference between adjacent tonal steps. Note the use of the qualifier "useful" in there: While it's tempting to evaluate dynamic range as the maximum number of tonal steps that can be discerned at all, that measure of dynamic range has very little relevance to real-world photography. What we care about as photographers is how much detail we can pull out of the shadows before image noise becomes too objectionable. This, of course, is a very subjective matter, and will vary with the application and even the subject matter in question. (Noise will be much more visible in subjects with large areas of flat tints and subtle shading than it would in subjects with strong, highly contrasting surface texture.)
What makes most sense then, is to specify useful dynamic range in terms of the point at which image noise reaches some agreed-upon threshold. To this end, Imatest computes a number of different dynamic range measurements, based on a variety of image noise thresholds. The noise thresholds are specified in terms of f-stops of equivalent luminance variation in the final image file, and dynamic range is computed for noise thresholds of 1.0 (low image quality), 0.5 (medium image quality), 0.25 (medium-high image quality) and 0.1 (high image quality). For most photographers and most applications, the noise thresholds of 0.5 and 0.25 f-stops are probably the most relevant to the production of acceptable-quality finished images, but many noise-sensitive shooters will insist on the 0.1 f-stop limit for their most critical work. A full discussion of all the data Imatest produces is really beyond the scope of this review: Visit the Imatest website for details of what the program measures, how it performs its computations, and how to interpret its output.
Note: Recently, we've switched to using DxOMark's dynamic range results because some cameras were exceeding what could measured with a Stouffer T4110 step chart, but DxOMark does not publish results for Fuji X-Trans sensors, probably because they don't support RAW files from those sensors which require more complex demosaicing than standard Bayer-filtered models. So, here we're showing our Imatest results at base ISO (best case). Note that Imatest's Quality Level threshold of Low corresponds to DxOMark's dynamic range signal-to-noise (SNR) threshold of 1.0.
Low Light. The X-Pro2 performed very well in our low light tests, able to capture bright images down to the lowest light level we test at. The darkest level equates to about 1/16 the brightness of average city street lighting at night, so the Fuji X-Pro2 should be able to take well-exposed photos in almost any environment in which you can see well enough to walk around in.
Using the default high ISO noise reduction setting, noise is low at ISO 200 and very well-controlled at ISO 3200. The maximum native ISO of 12,800 is of course noisier, but the noise "grain" is very fine and the images are still very usable. We didn't notice any significant issues with hot pixels, heat blooming or banding (fixed pattern noise).
Automatic color balance performed well in low light, just a touch cool at one foot-candle shifting to a bit warmer at 1/16 foot-candle.
Low Light AF: The Fuji X-Pro2's hybrid autofocus system was able to focus in extremely low light. With our low-contrast AF target, the camera was able to focus down to well below the 1/16 foot-candle light level unassisted with an f/2.8 lens, which is very good, though results varied from about -3 EV to -4 EV in different trials. With our new high-contrast AF target, the X-Pro2 was able to repeatedly autofocus down to about -4.5 EV unassisted, which is excellent. The Fuji X-Pro2 also has a built AF assist lamp, which lets it autofocus in complete darkness as long as the subject is in range and has sufficient contrast.
How bright is this? The one foot-candle light level that this test begins at roughly corresponds to the brightness of typical city street-lighting at night. Cameras performing well at that level should be able to snap good-looking photos of street-lit scenes.
NOTE: This low light test is conducted with a stationary subject, and the camera mounted on a sturdy tripod. Most digital cameras will fail miserably when faced with a moving subject in dim lighting. (For example, a child's ballet recital or a holiday pageant in a gymnasium.) Thanks to its larger sensor and Hybrid AF, compact system cameras like the Fuji X-Pro2 tend to do better than point & shoots, but you still shouldn't expect a quick autofocus lock with moving subjects.
Excellent 30 x 40 inch prints at ISO 100 & 200; a good 13 x 19 inch print at ISO 3200; and a good 5 x 7 inch print at ISO 25,600.
ISO 400 delivers a very sharp and vibrant print at 24 x 36 inches, with no artifacts of any kind visible at this print size.
ISO 800 also delivers a nice print at 24 x 36 inches. There is now a mild trace of noise in the flatter areas of our test target, but otherwise color reproduction and fine detail are still splendid. This is one of the best ISO 800 prints we've yet seen from a camera with an APS-C sensor. For super-critical printing needs, a reduction in size to 20 x 30 inches clears up even mild traces of noise in these few areas.
ISO 1600 yields 20 x 30 inch prints that are quite impressive for this ISO setting, with pleasing colors and good clarity throughout the image. There is a sign of mild noise in the flatter areas of our test target, similar to the 24 x 36 at ISO 800, as well as a typical softening of contrast detail in our tricky red-leaf fabric swatch, but otherwise a very nice print for this ISO. (Once again, a reduction in size, this time to 16 x 20 inches, yields a very clean print for those ultra-critical applications.)
ISO 3200 produces a 16 x 20 inch print that, like the sizes recommended at ISO 800 and 1600, is quite a capable size for this sensitivity setting. Similar evidence of minor noise exists in the shadow areas behind the bottles in our Still Life test target, although there is now virtually no contrast detail remaining in our red-leaf swatch. This print therefore almost passes our official "good" rating, and is certainly fine for less critical applications, but for print quality purposes we'll call 13 x 19 inch prints "good" here.
ISO 6400 prints are good at 11 x 14 inches. There is a trace of mild noise in the flatter areas of our target and the customary loss of detail in our red-leaf fabric swatch, but otherwise a very nice print for this ISO and sensor size.
ISO 12,800 allows for a good print at 8 x 10 inches, a rare feat for an APS-C camera and one of the best prints we've seen at this ISO for this camera class. There is still good color reproduction and detail with only mild issues apparent from noise reduction artifacts; a solid print overall.
ISO 25,600 delivers an 8 x 10 that almost passes our good seal, and is fine for less critical applications, while the 5 x 7 inch print here very much passes our good grade.
ISO 51,200 prints are rather amazing in that the 5 x 7 almost passes our good seal. This is, once again, quite rare for an APS-C camera. The 4 x 6 is quite good, and very much warrants our good seal of approval.
Do you like being able to crank the gain up to ISO 12,800 without a harsh penalty in image quality? If so, the Fuji X-Pro2 can deliver, being capable of a solid 8 x 10 inch print at that lofty ISO. While it certainly can't match strides with most full-frame offerings, it equals or bests most other cameras we've tested in the APS-C world for impressive print quality, and that's quite a feat given the current competition. What's also significant is that the X-Pro2 can make usable prints at every available ISO, and this is something we see from a relatively small percentage of cameras, even in the enthusiast category.
The images above were taken from our standardized test shots. For a collection of more pictorial photos, see our Fujifilm X-Pro2 Photo Gallery .
Not sure which camera to buy? Let your eyes be the ultimate judge! Visit our Comparometer(tm) to compare images from the Fujifilm X-Pro2 with those from other cameras you may be considering. The proof is in the pictures, so let your own eyes decide which you like best!