Canon T5i Exposure
Canon T5i Image Quality
Saturation & Hue Accuracy
Very good saturation and excellent hue accuracy.
|In the diagram above, the squares show the original color, and the circles show the color that the camera captured. More saturated colors are located toward the periphery of the graph. Hue changes as you travel around the center. Thus, hue-accurate, highly saturated colors appear as lines radiating from the center. Mouse over the links above to compare ISOs, and click to load a larger version.|
Saturation. The Canon EOS Rebel T5i produces images with fairly typical saturation levels. Strong reds, oranges, dark greens, dark brown and dark blues are pushed a little, while yellow and cyan are slightly muted. A mean saturation of 109.2% (9.2% oversaturated) at base ISO is typical. Average saturation remains fairly consistent at lower ISOs, but varies a bit more at higher ISOs, from a low of 106.7% at ISO 12800 to a peak of 113.9% at ISO 6400. Still, very good results here. Most consumer digital cameras produce color that's more highly saturated (more intense) than found in the original subjects. This is simply because most people like their color a bit brighter than life.
Skin tones. The Canon T5i produced pleasing, natural-looking Caucasian skin tones in our tests when using both manual and auto white balance settings. Darker skin tones show a small nudge toward orange, but good results overall. Where oversaturation is most problematic is on Caucasian skin tones, as it's very easy for these "memory colors" to be seen as too bright, too pink, too yellow, etc.
Hue. The Canon Rebel T5i's hue accuracy is excellent, much better than average. There are the usual shifts in cyan toward blue (actually quite small), red toward orange, and orange toward yellow, but all are fairly minor. (The cyan to blue shift is very common among the digital cameras we test; we think it's a deliberate choice by camera engineers to produce better-looking sky colors.) Average "delta-C" color error at base ISO is only 3.29, which is outstanding, one of the best scores we've recorded to date. Delta-C color error increases with ISO, but remains better than average across the ISO range. Hue is "what color" the
The Canon EOS Rebel T5i offers a total of nine saturation settings, four above and four below the default saturation. This covers a very wide range of saturation levels, and as it should, the Canon T5i's saturation adjustment affects only saturation, leaving the contrast of images more or less unaltered. (In some cameras, saturation tends to affect contrast, and vice versa.) The fine steps between settings mean you can program the camera to just the level of saturation you prefer. As usual for Canon, well done.
|Saturation Adjustment Examples|
The table above shows alternate settings including the default as well as the two extreme saturation settings. Click on any thumbnail above, then click again to see the full-sized image.
| See full set of test images
See thumbnails of all test and gallery images
Exposure and White Balance
Indoors, incandescent lighting
Auto and Incandescent settings both struggled with household incandescent lighting, though Manual white balance worked well. Slightly higher than average exposure compensation required.
|Auto White Balance
|Incandescent White Balance
|Manual White Balance
Indoors, under incandescent lighting, the Canon EOS Rebel T5i's Auto and Incandescent white balance settings struggled, both producing very warm red/orange color casts. Unfortunately, this is still common among cameras we've tested, but disappointing nonetheless. The Manual setting however produced very good white balance here. Note that the Rebel T5i doesn't offer a Kelvin temperature setting like its more expensive siblings, but like all recent Canon DSLRs, you can shift color balance toward more or less green vs magenta or blue vs amber, using a +/-9 step grid format display. The Canon Rebel T5i required +0.7 EV exposure compensation for this shot, which is slightly higher than the +0.3 EV average among the cameras we've tested. (Our test lighting for this shot is a mixture of 60 and 100 watt household incandescent bulbs, a pretty yellow light source, but a very common one in typical home settings here in the U.S.)
Color and saturation are very good, though a tendency towards slightly cool color balance and slightly high contrast under harsh lighting. Slightly below average exposure accuracy.
|Auto White Balance,
|Auto White Balance,
Outdoors, the Canon EOS Rebel T5i tended toward a slightly cool color balance, though overall color was generally very good. The Canon Rebel T5i required +1.0 EV exposure compensation to keep our mannequin's face bright, a little more than the typical +0.7 EV we're accustomed to using for our "Sunlit" portrait shot. The Canon T5i's default contrast is a little high, producing some washed-out highlights and dark shadows under the deliberately harsh lighting of our portrait test shown above left, though the camera's contrast, Auto Lighting Optimizer and Highlight Tone Priority settings do help with high contrast scenes like these. See below for examples of this. The Far-field shot (above right) was also a touch cool, and exposure a bit dim, though the camera did a good job of avoiding blown highlights at default exposure. Deep shadows however are quite dark and somewhat noisy.
Very high resolution, ~2,100 to 2,200 lines of strong detail from JPEGs, about 2,300 to 2,400 from RAW.
|Strong detail to
2,200 lines horizontal
|Strong detail to
2,100 lines vertical
|Strong detail to
2,400 lines horizontal
ACR Converted RAW
|Strong detail to
2,300 lines vertical
ACR Converted RAW
Our laboratory resolution chart showed the Canon Rebel T5i's images with sharp, distinct line patterns down to about 2,200 lines per picture height horizontally and about 2,100 lines vertically. Some may argue for higher numbers, but aliasing and sharpening artifacts start to interfere at this resolution. Extinction of the pattern occurred just past 3,200 lines horizontally and at about 3,000 lines vertically. Adobe Camera Raw converted .CR2 files show higher resolution than the in-camera JPEG, perhaps another 200 lines, and complete extinction of the pattern was extended to the limit of our chart (4,000 lines) in the horizontal direction, and to about 3,200 lines in the vertical direction. While ACR was able to extract more detail, it also produced more moiré and false colors, especially in vertical lines. Use these numbers to compare with other cameras of similar resolution, or use them to see just what higher resolution can mean in terms of potential detail.
Sharpness & Detail
Very good sharpness and detail with a sharp lens, though with moderate sharpening artifacts. Some minor detail loss to noise reduction processing even at low ISOs.
Sharpness. The Canon EOS Rebel T5i's 18-megapixel sensor captures sharp images with loads of detail when coupled with a sharp lens, though some edge-enhancement artifacts are visible around high-contrast edges such the halos around pine cones and thicker branches in the crop above left. (The above left crop shot was taken with Canon's very sharp 16-35mm f/2.8L II USM lens at f/8.) This is pretty typical, though, especially for consumer-oriented models. Edge enhancement creates the illusion of sharpness by enhancing colors and tones right at the edge of a rapid transition in color or tone.
Detail. The crop above right shows some detail loss due to noise suppression in darker areas and in areas with low contrast, but no more than we're accustomed to seeing at these resolutions. Good performance for an 18-megapixel APS-C sensor. (The image above right of the hair was taken with our very sharp Sigma 70mm f/2.8 reference lens.) Noise-suppression systems in digital cameras tend to flatten-out detail in areas of subtle contrast. The effects can often be seen in shots of human hair, where the individual strands are lost and an almost "watercolor" look appears.
Raw vs In-Camera JPEGs
As mentioned above, the Canon T5i does a good job of capturing sharp, detailed JPEGs when coupled with a sharp lens, but as is usually the case, additional detail can be extracted by carefully processing its RAW files.
In the table above, mousing over a link at the bottom will load the corresponding crop in the area above, and clicking on the link will load the full resolution file. Examples include in-camera Fine JPEG, the matching RAW file processed through Canon's Digital Photo Professional (DPP) software using default settings, and finally, the same RAW file processed through Adobe Camera Raw 8.1, then sharpened in Photoshop using 300% unsharp masking with an 0.3 pixel radius.
Canon's DPP software produced images very similar to in-camera JPEGs, perhaps with just slightly better detail. Images processed through ACR however show a noticeable improvement in fine detail compared to the camera JPEG and DPP conversion. As usual, though, the ACR conversion also reveals a bit more noise at default settings. You may want to experiment with ACR's noise reduction settings to find the detail versus noise trade-off you're looking for.
ISO & Noise Performance
Very good detail versus noise up to ISO 1,600, though detail suffers at higher ISOs.
Default High ISO Noise Reduction
|ISO 100||ISO 200||ISO 400|
|ISO 800||ISO 1,600||ISO 3,200|
|ISO 6,400||ISO 12,800||ISO 25,600|
The Canon T5i's high ISO performance is pretty good, very similar to the Canon T4i's. Images are quite clean at ISOs 100 through 400, with just a tiny amount of luminance noise seen in the shadows, as well as what looks to be chroma noise in the darker strands of hair. Noise "grain" is slightly more evident at ISO 800, but detail remains very strong despite stronger blurring due to noise reduction. ISO 1,600 is of course noisier, but fine detail is still quite good. At ISO 3,200 noise grain becomes coarser, blurring stronger, and chroma noise more apparent, resulting in a more noticeable drop in image quality. ISO 6,400 is quite grainy with obvious chroma noise, but there is still some fine detail left. Noise and the effects of noise reduction working hard to keep it under control really become apparent at ISO 12,800 and especially 25,600, with strong blurring and obvious chroma blotching.
There are also what look to be demosaicing errors in areas of fine vertical detail and high local contrast, such as the horizontal bands in the strands of hair on the mannequins's forehead at lower ISOs (see ISO 100 crop at right). We've seen these artifacts in our indoor portrait JPEG images from other Canon DSLRs, as well as hints of them in JPEGs from other manufacturers, so they're not that unusual. The aberrations are very subtle to be sure, but they're something to be aware of if you plan to make very large prints of similar subject matter from JPEGs. They don't appear in RAW files processed with a good converter such as Adobe Camera Raw.
Overall though, a very good performance for a consumer model, similar to the Canon T4i's. See the Print Quality section below for our evaluation of maximum print sizes at each ISO setting.
A note about focus for this shot: We shoot this image at f/4, using one of three very sharp reference lenses (70mm Sigma f/2.8 macro for most cameras, 60mm f/2.8 Nikkor macro for Nikon bodies without a drive motor, and Olympus Zuiko 50mm f/2.0 for Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds bodies). To insure that the hair detail we use for making critical judgements about camera noise processing and detail rendering is in sharp focus at the relatively wide aperture we're shooting at, the focus target at the center of the scene is on a movable stand. This lets us compensate for front- or back-focus by different camera bodies, even those that lack micro-focus adjustments. This does mean, though, that the focus target itself may appear soft or slightly out of focus for bodies that front- or back-focused with the reference lens. If you click to view the full-size image for one of these shots and notice that the focus target is fuzzy, you don't need to email and tell us about it; we already know it. :-) The focus target position will simply have been adjusted to insure that the rest of the scene is focused properly.
Extremes: Sunlit, dynamic range and low light tests
Very high resolution with strong overall detail, but somewhat high default contrast and unremarkable dynamic range. Highlight Tone Priority and contrast adjustment options do a great job of dealing with tough lighting. Good low-light performance, but autofocus can struggle.
|+0.3 EV||+0.7 EV||+1.0 EV|
The Canon Rebel T5i struggled a bit here, producing moderately high contrast with some washed-out highlights and deep shadows under the deliberately harsh lighting of the test above. Our mannequin's face was too dim at the +0.3 EV and +0.7 EV settings, so we preferred the image with +1.0 EV exposure compensation here. This resulted in more clipped highlights in the shirt and flowers than we're used to seeing from an APS-C sensor lately, indicating mediocre dynamic range compared to the best of recent competitors. Shadow detail was however pretty good, though somewhat noisy. Bottom line: While dynamic range isn't bad, it isn't as good as some competing models, at least not without features such as HTP and ALO enabled (see below).
Because digital cameras are more like slide film than negative film (in that they tend to have a more limited tonal range), we test them in the harshest situations to see how they handle scenes with bright highlights and dark shadows, as well as what kind of sensitivity they have in low light. The shot above is designed to mimic the very harsh, contrasty effect of direct noonday sunlight, a very tough challenge for most digital cameras. (You can read details of this test here. In actual shooting conditions, be sure to use fill flash in situations like the one shown here; it's better to shoot in open shade whenever possible.)
We really like it when a camera gives us the ability to adjust contrast and saturation to our liking. It's even better when those adjustments cover a useful range, in steps small enough to allow for precise tweaks. As was the case with its saturation adjustment, the Canon T5i's contrast setting meets both challenges very well.
|Contrast set to lowest,
|Contrast set to lowest,
At its lowest contrast setting, the Canon T5i did a very good job of preserving highlight detail, maintaining fairly natural-looking skin tones, and holding nice detail in the shadows. Overall, very good results here when the contrast setting is adjusted.
|Contrast Adjustment Examples|
The Canon Rebel T5i's contrast-adjustment control offers a very broad range of control in usefully fine gradations, and does a good job of adjusting contrast without affecting color saturation in the process. (As noted earlier regarding saturation adjustment, something that not all cameras manage to do.)
Just like most point & shoot cameras these days, the Canon EOS Rebel T5i has the ability to detect faces in Live View mode, and adjust exposure and focus accordingly.
Face Detect: Off
Face Detect: On
As you can see from the examples above, face detection works well, as the center image with it enabled is better exposed for the face than the left image where face detection was not employed. Full Auto mode (right) was also an improvement over Aperture Priority without face detection, selecting a larger aperture than we normally use for this shot (f/4 vs f/8), though the mannequin's face is still somewhat dim.
Highlight Tone Priority
The Canon T5i's Highlight Tone Priority (HTP) option does an excellent job of preserving highlight detail while boosting shadows and midtones. (Mouse over the Off and On links to load the corresponding thumbnail.)
Both shots above were captured at the same exposure, the only difference being that HTP was enabled for the second shot which necessarily increases the ISO to 200; part of how HTP works. If you look closely at shadows however, you'll notice an increase in noise is the price you pay when ISO is boosted from 100 to 200. Except in the very deepest shadows, though, overall noise is low enough at ISO 200 that this is really a negligible trade-off for all but the most critical applications.
Automatic Lighting Optimization
Like all recent Canon DSLRs, the Canon T5i offers three selectable levels of Automatic Lighting Optimization (ALO), plus Off. In fully automatic and Creative Auto exposure modes, ALO is automatically enabled. All four shots below were taken with the same default exposure settings. Mouse over the links below to load the associated thumbnail, and click on the links to load full resolution images.
As you can see above, ALO has the effect of brightening shadows and indeed most of the image without clipping too many additional highlights. ISO is not boosted for ALO so increased noise is not an issue, though it may be slightly more visible in shadows that have been boosted significantly.
HDR Backlight Control
The Canon T5i's HDR Backlight Control feature takes three continuous shots at different exposures and merges them together to create an image with wider tonal range than would be possible with a single exposure. (Mouse over the Off and On links below to load the corresponding thumbnail.)
As you can see, the HDR Backlight Control shot has preserved highlights while shadows have been opened up, with great detail, though lighter colors have taken on a slightly cool bias, at least in this shot. Do however note that part of the image has been cropped away in the alignment process, and be aware that ghosting can occur when elements of the scene move during the sequence capture.
A key parameter in a digital camera is its Dynamic Range, the range of brightness that can be faithfully recorded. At the upper end of the tonal scale, dynamic range is dictated by the point at which the RGB data "saturates" at values of 255, 255, 255. At the lower end of the tonal scale, dynamic range is determined by the point at which there ceases to be any useful difference between adjacent tonal steps. Note the use of the qualifier "useful" in there: While it's tempting to evaluate dynamic range as the maximum number of tonal steps that can be discerned at all, that measure of dynamic range has very little relevance to real-world photography. What we care about as photographers is how much detail we can pull out of the shadows before image noise becomes too objectionable. This, of course, is a very subjective matter, and will vary with the application and even the subject matter in question. (Noise will be much more visible in subjects with large areas of flat tints and subtle shading than it would in subjects with strong, highly contrasting surface texture.)
What makes most sense then, is to specify useful dynamic range in terms of the point at which image noise reaches some agreed-upon threshold. To this end, Imatest computes a number of different dynamic range measurements, based on a variety of image noise thresholds. The noise thresholds are specified in terms of f-stops of equivalent luminance variation in the final image file, and dynamic range is computed for noise thresholds of 1.0 (low image quality), 0.5 (medium image quality), 0.25 (medium-high image quality) and 0.1 (high image quality). For most photographers and most applications, the noise thresholds of 0.5 and 0.25 f-stops are probably the most relevant to the production of acceptable-quality finished images, but many noise-sensitive shooters will insist on the 0.1 f-stop limit for their most critical work.
Low Light. The Canon T5i performed well in our low-light test, capturing bright images at the lowest light level we test (1/16 foot-candle), even with the lowest sensitivity setting (ISO 100). As expected, noise increases as ISO goes up and light levels go down, but noise remains fairly low up to ISO 1,600, and performance is still quite good up to ISO 6,400. Noise is high at ISOs 12,800 and 25,600, particularly when noise reduction is minimized (extreme right column in the table above), though that's to be expected.
We noticed a few hot pixels here and there particularly when long exposure noise reduction was turned off (where they can be expected), but that's not unusual. And we didn't see any significant banding (pattern noise) or heat bloom.
Color balance was pretty neutral with Canon Rebel T5i's Auto white balance setting (just a touch cool), even at high ISOs, though white balance took on a slightly reddish or magenta tint at lower light levels.
When using the optical viewfinder and dedicated phase-detect AF system, the Canon Rebel T5i's autofocus system was able to focus on the subject down to just below the 1/8 foot-candle light level unassisted with our Sigma f/2.8 lens, and in complete darkness with AF assist enabled. In Live View mode using Hybrid AF, the Canon T5i was able to focus down to just above the 1/4 foot-candle light level, which is fair for a DSLR in Live View mode with an f/2.8 lens.
As always, keep in mind that the longer shutter speeds here demand the use of a tripod to prevent any blurring from camera movement. (A useful trick is to just prop the camera on a convenient surface, and use its self-timer to release the shutter. This avoids any jiggling from your finger pressing the shutter button, and can work quite well when you don't have a tripod handy.)
How bright is this? The one foot-candle light level that this test begins at roughly corresponds to the brightness of typical city street-lighting at night. Cameras performing well at that level should be able to snap good-looking photos of street-lit scenes.
NOTE: This low light test is conducted with a stationary subject, and the camera mounted on a sturdy tripod. Most digital cameras will fail miserably when faced with a moving subject in dim lighting. (For example, a child's ballet recital or a holiday pageant in a gymnasium.) Digital SLRs like the Canon T5i do much better than point & shoots, but you still shouldn't expect a quick autofocus lock with moving subjects.
Good 24 x 36 inch prints at ISO 100 and 200; makes a good 16 x 20 inch print at ISO 800 and a usable 4 x 6 at ISO 12,800.
ISO 400 allows for great prints up to 20 x 30 inches, while 24 x 36-inch prints are suitable for wall display.
ISO 800 images look good at 16 x 20 inches. There is some noise, but you only really see it in the shadow areas. 20 x 30-inch prints would be suitable for wall display.
ISO 1600 makes a good 13 x 19-inch print with a nice level of fine detail. Colors also look accurate and pleasing. At 16 x 20 inches, the image is a bit too soft in finely detailed areas for us to make the call at that size. Noise starts to appear in the shadows if you look closely, but noise in the highlights and midrange areas are very low.
ISO 3200 prints start to show a bit more noise in the shadows, and the T5i starts to have noticeable issues with red colors, particularly in our red fabric area of our test scene. Still, it produces a nice 8 x 10-inch print, and 5 x 7-inch prints look even better. As before, shadow noise is apparent, but otherwise the image looks great and fine details are still visible.
ISO 6400 makes a decent 5 x 7-inch print, but colors start to look less vibrant and fine detail is reduced due to higher noise, preventing us from calling anything larger acceptable.
ISO 12,800 images are fairly heavy on noise and lack fine detail at larger sizes, but still produce a decent 4 x 6-inch print. Colors still look okay, if a little on the dull side. Fine detail, such as in the red fabric or mosaic area, is drastically reduced.
ISO 25,600 images were too mushy on fine detail and high ISO noise was very apparent, and therefore we would recommend avoiding this sensitivity if you want to make prints.
The Canon Rebel T5i produces excellent results for large prints at low sensitivity levels, all the way up to wall-mountable 30 x 40-inch prints at ISO 100 and 200. Additionally, the T5i does surprisingly well at controlling noise at higher ISO levels. It wasn't until we got to ISO 6400 and looked very closely at the shadow areas that we began to see noise, as well as noticeable degradation in fine detail. At extreme sensitivities like ISO 12,800 and 25,600, colors and fine detail took a big hit, but the camera still managed to produce an acceptable 4 x 6-inch print at ISO 12,800. Overall, this consumer-level DSLR does very nicely with printed images, much like its predecessor, the Canon Rebel T4i. It produces great low-ISO prints at large sizes, while still doing a nice job with prints at high ISO levels.
About our print-quality testing: Our "Reference Printer"
The Canon PRO-1000 has a lot of characteristics that make it a natural to use for our "reference printer." When it comes to judging how well a camera's photos print, resolution and precise rendering are paramount. The PRO-1000's more than 18,000 individual nozzles combine with an air feeding system that provides exceptional droplet-placement accuracy. Its 11-color LUCIA PRO ink system delivers a wide color gamut and dense blacks, giving us a true sense of the cameras' image quality. To best see fine details, we've always printed on glossy paper, so the PRO-1000's "Chroma Optimizer" overcoat that minimizes "bronzing" or gloss differential is important to us. (Prior to the PRO-1000, we've always used dye-based printers, in part to avoid the bronzing problems with pigment-based inks.) Finally, we just don't have time to deal with clogged inkjet heads, and the PRO-1000 does better in that respect than any printer we've ever used. If you don't run them every day or two, inkjet printers tend to clog. Canon's thermal-inkjet technology is inherently less clog-prone than other approaches, but the PRO-1000 takes this a step further, with sensors that monitor every inkjet nozzle. If one clogs, it will assign another to take over its duties. In exchange for a tiny amount of print speed, this lets you defer cleaning cycles, which translates into significant ink savings. In our normal workflow, we'll often crank out a hundred or more letter-size prints in a session, but then leave the printer to sit for anywhere from days to weeks before the next camera comes along. In over a year of use, we've never had to run a nozzle-cleaning cycle on our PRO-1000.
See our Canon PRO-1000 review for a full overview of the printer from the viewpoint of a fine-art photographer.
*Disclosure: Canon provided us with the PRO-1000 and a supply of ink to use in our testing, and we receive advertising consideration for including this mention when we talk about camera print quality. Our decision to use the PRO-1000 was driven by the printer itself, though, prior to any discussion with Canon on the topic. (We'd actually been using an old Pixma PRO 9500II dye-based printer for years previously, and paying for our own ink, until we decided that the PRO-1000 was the next-generation printer we'd been waiting for.)
The images above were taken from our standardized test shots. For a collection of more pictorial photos, see our Canon EOS Rebel T5i (EOS 700D) Photo Gallery .
Not sure which camera to buy? Let your eyes be the ultimate judge! Visit our Comparometer(tm) to compare images from the Canon EOS Rebel T5i (EOS 700D) with those from other cameras you may be considering. The proof is in the pictures, so let your own eyes decide which you like best!
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